158 A GRAMMAR OF THE The accusative always precedes the verb. In addition to the two regular affixes of this case, which have already been mentioned in the chapter of nouns, there are two other forms in common use. In the one, the fioal of the accusative case of nouns of the first declension, is doubled ; and in the other declensions, the affix en is added to the crude noun ; as divort, do muz, or made to call Rama; 2001, no , or roata Dogs ag nu he saw the mountain. In nouns denoting inanimate things, the nominative or the crude noun is sometimes used for the accusative ; as evolutp open that box. softly. The instrumental case is used as the agent of a passive verb, and also to explain the efficient, material, or instrumental, cause ; as fissazn 200m ewrazy JDWTony 3 av that suit was tried by the court ; anno మీక్ష వు salvation is to be attained by knoxwledge ; బాస్నధిం దమాదిదు Joway an idol made of gold; W7,00 Qonda w he flogged with a rattan. . The dative case is used when the act of giving is expressed ; in pointing out : the distance between two places ; in expressiog the relation or connexion be- - tween two individuals; ia denoting motion towards a place; in forming degrees of comparison ; io expressing the peculiar quality of a thing; in denoting the possession of a thing; in expressing any end or purpose; in denoting exchange; and before local pronouns, and those of time ; in all otber respects, the dative is used in the same manner as the English prepositions to and for; as uo huo Nato o also with me atba the king gave a horse to his minister ; శ్రీరంగ పట్టణం న్నపట్టి మూవతు గావడవు madras is thirty gadadas distant from seringupatam; and sometimes, both the names of the places are put in the dative case, with the addition of the conjunctive par. ticle ero; as sooth 3.0 Furci w naszno prawon Ay To the Digitized by Google
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